The Kyoto Protocol is an historical agreement in that it was the first international agreement in which many of the the world's industrial nations concluded a. The targets for the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol cover emissions of the six main greenhouse gases, namely: • Carbon dioxide (CO2); • Methane. Negotiations on a subsidiary agreement under the UNFCCC, known as the Kyoto Protocol, began in The Kyoto Protocol came into force in after


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Developing nations were asked to voluntarily comply.

Kyoto Protocol | History, Provisions, & Facts |

More than developing countries, including China kyoto protocol India, were exempted from the treaty. The treaty also established an international trading system, which allows countries to earn credits toward their emission target by investing in emission cleanups outside their own country.

According to the Global Carbon Atlas, the largest contributors of greenhouse gases in were China and the United States. A third approach was emissions tradingkyoto protocol allowed participating countries to buy and sell emissions rights and thereby placed an economic value on greenhouse gas emissions.


European countries initiated an emissions-trading kyoto protocol as a mechanism to work toward meeting their commitments under the Kyoto Protocol.

Countries that failed to meet their emissions targets would be required to make up the difference between their targeted and actual emissions, plus a penalty amount of 30 percent, in the subsequent commitment period, kyoto protocol in ; they would also be prevented from engaging in emissions trading until they were judged to be in compliance kyoto protocol the protocol.

Kyoto Protocol

The emission targets for commitment periods after were to be established in future protocols. Challenges Although the Kyoto Protocol represented a landmark diplomatic accomplishment, its success was far from assured.

Indeed, reports issued in the first two years after the treaty took effect indicated that most participants would fail to meet their emission targets. Removals sinks are limited to direct human-induced land-use change and forestry activities afforestation, reforestation and deforestation since The Kyoto Protocol does not specify the mechanisms by which Kyoto protocol to the Protocol must meet their emissions target, thus providing an Annex Kyoto protocol country such as Australia reasonable amount of discretion kyoto protocol to the policies and measures it implements domestically to meet its target.


Domestic abatement action should be the primary means by kyoto protocol Annex I countries such as Australia meets their emissions target.

Parties are also provided with an indicative list of policies and measures that they may wish to consider.

These include promoting sustainable agriculture, promoting the renewable energy, removing market assistance for environmentally damaging economic kyoto protocol, confronting the issue of transport sector emissions, and so forth.

Unless other commitments were made to reduce the total surplus in allowances, such trade would not actually result in emissions being reduced [46]: However, using the GIS is not required under the Kyoto Protocol, and there is no official definition kyoto protocol the term. The proceeds from the AAU sales should be "greened", i.

World Bank [52]: