The Pterygoid plexus is a venous plexus located between the Temporalis and the Lateral pterygoid muscles. ・From: Corresponding veins with the branches of. Pterygoid plexus (Q). No description defined instance of · venous plexus. 0 references. native label. plexus venosus pterygoideus (Latin). issued by. The pterygoid plexus is a venous plexus of considerable size, and is situated between the temporalis muscle and lateral pterygoid muscle, and partly between.


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Posterior superior alveolar nerve block is most commonly used pterygoid plexus the surgical procedures, extraction or root canal treatment of the maxillary molars with possible exception of mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar and buccal soft tissues.

The injection of local anesthesia is usually safe but a rare complication of extraoral hematoma formation in the mandibular pterygoid plexus buccal region might occur due to the insertion of the needle to far posteriorly into the pterygoid plexus pterygoid plexus veins, maxillary artery — posterior superior alveolar artery and the facial artery which is esthetically unpleasant to the patient and quite embarrassing for the dentist.

This case report describe the complication of posterior superior alveolar nerve block and its pterygoid plexus. Main article text Introduction The unintentional nicking of the blood vessels artery or vein with needle during the injection of local anesthesia might results in effusion of blood into the extravascular spaces with subsequent hematoma formation.

Puncture of vein by needle may or may not results in the formation of hematoma but perforation of artery subsequently develop hematoma which rapidly increases in size until treatment is instituted due to significantly greater blood pterygoid plexus within the artery.

The size of the hematoma also depends upon the density of the pterygoid plexus surrounding the blood vessel. The posterior superior alveolar PSA nerve block targets the posterior superior nerve in the infratemporal fossa.

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It is accomplished by depositing the anesthetic agent pterygoid plexus the posterior surface of the maxilla. Pterygoid plexus needle must be advanced medially, superiorly and posteriorly at a 45 degree angle to the maxillary occlusal plane to reach the infratemporal fossa.

The improperly placed posterior superior alveolar nerve block can result in various complications.


The hematoma formation due to trauma to the pterygoid plexus of veins is one of the most common complications. A very uncommon and rare complication of bell's palsy can result due to improper placement of the needle into the inferior part of the parotid gland resulting to the trauma of the cervicofacial division of the facial nerve.

This along with pterygoid plexus of the lateral and medial pterygoid muscles could result in trismus. Multiple-choice review questions end each chapter and prepare you pterygoid plexus board examinations in dental assisting and dental hygiene.

[Importance of the pterygoid plexus].

Comprehensive coverage provides a solid foundation in head and neck anatomy, with an in-depth discussion of the TMJ and its role in dental health, plus additional material on the anatomy of local anesthesia and the spread pterygoid plexus dental infection.

Pterygoid plexus writing style ensures that you easily comprehend complex anatomy and clinical application.


Chapters are organized by anatomical systems of study so that discussions progress logically from overviews of the area to the specifics related to the head and neck, providing a solid foundation for learning. Detailed anatomical illustrations and clear, colorful photographs show models and patients within a clinical setting to support text descriptions and pterygoid plexus ensure comprehension.

Award-winning pterygoid plexus trusted author Margaret Fehrenbach curates cutting-edge content and the latest evidence-based information.

Key terms and their phonetic pronunciations are highlighted within the chapter and defined in a back-of-book glossary.